people consulting

How do the Education and Training Governance Guidelines link to the evidence?

These guidelines align with current supporting literature and link to existing policies and accreditation guidelines. The following table (Table 3) map the five guidelines to a range of key policies and standards.

Table 3. The guidelines mapped to key policies and standards

Patient driven

Patient and clinical service needs and benefits are an overarching principle of workforce education and training.

  • The needs of patient/client groups are identified and used to inform organisational planning and educational strategy
  • Data management systems are in place to capture patient trends throughout the care continuum (inpatient, outpatient and community), enabling managers to plan education services that target patient/client needs
  • Planning of team/department/service education and training activities is based on local population needs and individual learning and development plans
  • Aboriginal cultural awareness, safety and responsiveness training relevant to the location of the LHD/SHN
Supporting document
Reference/details

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2017

NSQHS standards.

Standard 1

1.1. The governing body:

a. Provides leadership to ensure partnering with patients, carers and consumers

1.2. The governing body ensures that the organisation’s safety and quality priorities address the specific health needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

1.21. The health service organisation has strategies to improve the cultural awareness and cultural competency of the workforce to meet the needs of its Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients

Australian Council on Healthcare Standards, 2013 EQuiP National

11.5. The organisation meets the needs of consumers/patients and carers with diverse needs and from diverse backgrounds

13.1. Workforce planning supports the organisation’s current and future ability to address needs

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2017

NSQHS Standards – User Guide for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

Action 1.21. Improve cultural competency.

Key tasks:

  • Use the national Cultural Respect Framework 2016–2026 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health to develop, implement and evaluate cultural that is tailored to the needs of the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural awareness and cultural competency strategies
  • Develop and maintain mechanisms to partner with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to gain feedback on, and improve, cultural competency

AHPRA, The National Scheme’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health and Cultural Safety Strategy 2020-2015

Strategy 2 – Ensure consistency for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and cultural safety in education and training standards and accreditation guidelines

Strategy 6 – Develop a Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and upskilling strategy for the registered health workforce

WHO, 2013b Transforming and scaling up health professionals’ education and training: World Health Organization Guidelines

Recommendation 1. Health professionals’ education and training institutions should consider designing and implementing continuing professional development programmes for faculty and teaching staff relevant to the evolving health-care needs of their communities

Braithwaite and Travaglia, 2008

Data management systems are in place to capture patient trends throughout the care continuum (inpatient, outpatient and community), enabling managers to plan education services that target patient/client needs

National Rural Health Commissioner report – June 2020

Recommendation 2: Two strategies recommended are: further expansion of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Academy model to all Australian jurisdictions; and the creation of a Leaders in Indigenous Allied Health Training and Education Network. Once established, these strategies will increase pathways for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to enter the allied health workforce and will improve the cultural safety of rural and remote allied health services and training for all Australians.

Clinician focused

Learning and development planning, responsibility and evaluation is essential to embedding new skills and knowledge into practice.

  • Education and training of Allied Health staff is actively supported
  • Education and training responsibilities of individuals are clearly outlined in position descriptions
  • Learning and development plans are incorporated into the local performance and development review system.
  • Evidence based practice is implemented at a system/service level
  • Allocated time is prioritised for education and training activities within core clinical and non-clinical responsibilities
Supporting document
Reference/details

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2017

NSQHS Standards

Standard 1

1.20. The health service organisation uses its training systems to:

a. Assess the competency and training needs of its workforce

b. Implement a mandatory training program to meet its requirements arising from these standards

c. Provide access to training to meet its safety and quality training needs

d. Monitor the workforce’s participation in training

1.22. The health service organisation has valid and reliable performance review processes that:

b. Identify needs for training and development in safety and quality

c. Incorporate information on training requirements into the organisation’s training system

1.27. The health service organisation has processes that:

a. Provide clinicians with ready access to best-practice guidelines, integrated care pathways, clinical pathways and decision support tools relevant to their clinical practice

b. Support clinicians to use the best available evidence, including relevant clinical care standards developed by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Standard 5

5.5. The health service organisation has processes to:

a. Support multidisciplinary collaboration and teamwork

b. Define the roles and responsibilities of each clinician working in a team

5.6. Clinicians work collaboratively to plan and deliver comprehensive care

AHPRA Standards, 2015

Minimum CPD requirements are stated in the Registration Standards of the allied health boards:

  • Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (60 hours every 3-year cycle, min 10 hours per year)
  • Occupational Therapy Board of Australia (20 hours per year)
  • Pharmacy Board of Australia (40 CPD credits per year, internal sub-requirements)
  • Physiotherapy Board of Australia (20 hours per year)
  • Podiatry Board of Australia (20 Hours per year)
  • Psychology Board of Australia (30 hours per year, incl. 10 hours peer consultation).

WHO, 2013 Transforming and scaling up health professionals’ education and training: World Health Organization Guidelines

Recommendation 5. Health professionals’ education and training institutions should use simulation methods (high fidelity methods in settings with appropriate resources and lower fidelity methods in resource limited settings) in the education of health professionals

Recommendation 9. Health professionals’ education and training institutions should consider implementing Inter-professional education (IPE) in both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes

Recommendation 11. Health professionals’ education and training institutions should implement continuous professional development and in-service training of health professionals relevant to the evolving health-care needs of their communities

NSW Health, 2013 Consensus Statement: Principles Underpinning Allied Health Governance in Local Health Districts/Specialty Networks

Principle 7 (excerpt). [Training] opportunities include:

  • Clinical education provided in-house
  • Externally provided clinical education for the development of specialist skills
  • Conference leave and funding
  • Partnerships or links with universities for clinical placements, ongoing staff education and research

Leadership

Effective healthcare leadership encourages and facilitates education and training opportunities to build capability and empower allied health.

  • Staff are supported to devote a minimum of 20-40 hours per year (for a FTE staff member), to CPD (excluding mandatory training) which supports clinician capability in delivering person-centred care (AHPRA, 2015)
  • Staff are encouraged to explore opportunities to enhance education and training activities
  • Formal partnerships exist with key stakeholders to support education and training of allied health professionals both internally and externally
  • There is representative membership of allied health professionals on education and other peak committees
  • Interprofessional learning opportunities are identified and supported within the organisation
Supporting document
Reference/details

AHPRA Standards 2015

Minimum CPD requirements are stated in the Registration Standards of the AHPRA allied health boards:

  • Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (60 hours every 3 year cycle, min 10 hours per year)
  • Occupational Therapy Board of Australia (20 hours per year)
  • Pharmacy Board of Australia (40 CPD credits per year, internal sub-requirements)
  • Physiotherapy Board of Australia (20 hours per year)
  • Podiatry Board of Australia (20 Hours per year)
  • Psychology Board of Australia (30 hours per year, incl. 10 hours peer consultation).

NSW Health, 2013 Consensus Statement: Principles Underpinning Allied Health Governance in Local Health Districts/Specialty Networks

Principle 7 (excerpt). In order to enhance the recruitment and retention of allied health employees, it is imperative that appropriate clinical support and training are offered. This includes access to professional support and supervision as well as continuing professional development opportunities. The budget for such endeavours should be prioritised as a key to strengthening workforce development…Leadership across allied health professions is critical to the implementation of workforce redesign and in ensuring responsiveness to clinical service innovation.

Garling, 2008 Final Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry Acute Care Services in NSW Public Hospitals

Recommendation 26: I recommend that NSW Health address deficiencies in the workforce of and delivery of services by allied health professionals in public hospitals by considering and implementing a program which addresses the following matters:

(d) Determining the appropriate means by which allied health professionals should receive adequate ongoing education and providing such education and training.

Recommendation 34: NSW Health should explore the opportunities for and develop programs which attract senior clinicians to become involved in or else increase their involvement in, the teaching and supervision of junior clinical staff, including by developing appropriate positions and career streams for such senior clinicians.

Recommendation 35: NSW Health should consider the enhancement of the training and education provided for allied health professionals, by, at least:

(a) Considering the provision of funding directly, or else indirectly through payment of allowances for attendance at, and participation in external education and training courses relevant to the particular allied health specialty; and

(b) Considering whether it would be appropriate and cost effective to create specific positions for the provision of education to the particular allied health specialties.

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2017

NSQHS Standards

Standard 1

1.20. The health service organisation uses its training systems to:

a. Assess the competency and training needs of its workforce

b. Implement a mandatory training program to meet its requirements arising from these standards

c. Provide access to training to meet its safety and quality training needs

d. Monitor the workforce’s participation in training.

1.22. The health service organisation has valid and reliable performance review processes that:

b. Identify needs for training and development in safety and quality

c. Incorporate information on training requirements into the organisation’s training system.

1.27. The health service organisation has processes that:

a. Provide clinicians with ready access to best-practice guidelines, integrated care pathways, clinical pathways and decision support tools relevant to their clinical practice

b. Support clinicians to use the best available evidence, including relevant clinical care standards developed by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.

Standard 5

5.5. The health service organisation has processes to:

a. Support multidisciplinary collaboration and teamwork

b. Define the roles and responsibilities of each clinician working in a team.

5.6. Clinicians work collaboratively to plan and deliver comprehensive care

Organisational factors

Health services have organisational structures that value and promote education and training embedded as core business.

  • A culture that values education and training within the organisation is fostered
  • Education and training activities are aligned with the strategic direction of the organisation and local health needs
  • Education and training is planned following the identification of individual, team or discipline learning needs
  • The quality and impact (change in workplace/clinical practices) of education and training is evaluated
  • An organisation-wide policy or guideline exists to support structured clinical supervision of allied health professionals
  • Allied Health educator positions are advocated for
  • Key performance indicators surrounding education and training of allied health professionals have been established and are monitored
Supporting document
Reference/details

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2017

NSQHS Standards

Standard 1

1.1. The governing body:

a. Provides leadership to develop a culture of safety and quality improvement, and satisfies itself that this culture exists within the organisation

c. Sets priorities and strategic directions for safe and high-quality clinical care, and ensures that these are communicated effectively to the workforce and the community

1.24. The health service organisation:

b. Conducts processes to ensure that   clinicians are credentialed, where relevant

1.26. The health service organisation provides supervision for clinicians to ensure that they can safely fulfil their designated roles, including access to after-hours advice, where appropriate

Australian Council on Healthcare Standards, 2013

EQuiP National

13.2. The recruitment, selection and appointment system ensures that the skill mix and competence of staff, and the mix of volunteers, meets the needs of the organisation.

13.3. The continuing employment and development system ensures the competence of staff and volunteers.

13.4. Employee support systems and workplace relations assist the organisation to achieve its goals.

NSW Health, 2013 Consensus Statement: Principles Underpinning Allied Health Governance in Local Health Districts/Specialty Networks

Principle 7 (excerpt). In order to enhance the recruitment and retention of allied health employees, it is imperative that appropriate clinical support and training are offered. This includes access to professional support and supervision as well as continuing professional development opportunities. The budget for such endeavours should be prioritised as a key to strengthening workforce development…Leadership across allied health professions is critical to the implementation of workforce redesign and in ensuring responsiveness to clinical service innovation.

Garling, 2008 Final Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry Acute Care Services in NSW Public Hospitals

Recommendation 26: I recommend that NSW Health address deficiencies in the workforce of and delivery of services by allied health professionals in public hospitals by considering and implementing a program which addresses the following matters:

(d) Determining the appropriate means by which allied health professionals should receive adequate ongoing education and providing such education and training.

Recommendation 34: NSW Health should explore the opportunities for and develop programs which attract senior clinicians to become involved in or else increase their involvement in, the teaching and supervision of junior clinical staff, including by developing appropriate positions and career streams for such senior clinicians.

Recommendation 35: NSW Health should consider the enhancement of the training and education provided for allied health professionals, by, at least:

(c) Considering the provision of funding directly, or else indirectly through payment of allowances for attendance at, and participation in external education and training courses relevant to the particular allied health specialty; and

(d) Considering whether it would be appropriate and cost effective to create specific positions for the provision of education to the particular allied health specialties.

Recommendation 12: NSW Health should take immediate steps to enhance the supply of a skilled workforce of clinicians to rural areas by ways which include, at least:

(c) Developing education facilities and programs which ensure that clinicians working in the rural and remote areas of NSW are provided with adequate education and training.

AHPRA Standards

Pharmacy Board of Australia requires 1824 hours of supervised practice for general registration.

Psychology Board of Australia requires clinical supervision by a Board-approved supervisor in the following circumstances:

  • 4+2 internship program
  • 5+1 internship program
  • Placements during an accredited higher degree program
  • Working in addition to higher degree placements
  • Registrar program leading to endorsement in an area of practice
  • Re-entry program after a period of not practising, and
  • Transitional program for overseas-qualified applicants.

The Psychology Board of Australia also provides guidelines for clinical supervisors and supervisor training providers.

NSW Health Clinical Supervision Framework, 2015

Principle 1 – Clinical supervision is available to all health professionals to optimise patient care and outcomes

Principle 4 – Clinical supervision contributes to continuous professional learning and practice improvement

Fitzpatrick et al, 2012

Quality allied health clinical supervision policy in Australia: a literature review

Identified four key features of effective supervision:

  • Successful supervisory relationships
  • Accessibility
  • Clarity of expectations.

Focuses on meeting the needs of the supervisee.

Greer et al, 2016 Strengthening Health System Governance: Better Policies, Stronger Performance

Five key components for good governance in health services: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity and policy capacity.

Resources

Facilitating access to education and training is supported by allocation of human and financial resources.

  • Resources are in place that support education and training of allied health professionals both inter-professionally and within specific disciplines and specialty areas
  • There is access to resources required to support workplace education and training
  • Education and training trends across the organisation are monitored to identify common need areas
  • In rural and remote organisations, access to professional development is prioritised
Supporting document
Reference/details

Garling, 2008 Final Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry Acute Care Services in NSW Public Hospitals

Recommendation 12: NSW Health should take immediate steps to enhance the supply of a skilled workforce of clinicians to rural areas by ways which include, at least:

(c) Developing education facilities and programs which ensure that clinicians working in the rural and remote areas of NSW are provided with adequate education and training.

Recommendation 26: I recommend that NSW Health address deficiencies in the workforce of and delivery of services by allied health professionals in public hospitals by considering and implementing a program which addresses the following matters:

(d) Determining the appropriate means by which allied health professionals should receive adequate ongoing education and providing such education and training.

Recommendation 34: NSW Health should explore the opportunities for and develop programs which attract senior clinicians to become involved in or else increase their involvement in, the teaching and supervision of junior clinical staff, including by developing appropriate positions and career streams for such senior clinicians.

Recommendation 35: NSW Health should consider the enhancement of the training and education provided for allied health professionals, by, at least:

(e) Considering the provision of funding directly, or else indirectly through payment of allowances for attendance at, and participation in external education and training courses relevant to the particular allied health specialty; and

(f) Considering whether it would be appropriate and cost effective to create specific positions for the provision of education to the particular allied health specialties.

Recommendation 12: NSW Health should take immediate steps to enhance the supply of a skilled workforce of clinicians to rural areas by ways which include, at least:

(c) Developing education facilities and programs which ensure that clinicians working in the rural and remote areas of NSW are provided with adequate education and training.

WHO, 2010.

Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention: global policy recommendations.

Recommendations

A.5. Design continuing education and professional development programmes that meet the needs of rural health workers and that are accessible from where they live and work, so as to support their retention.

D.4. Develop and support career development programmes and provide senior posts in rural areas so that health workers can move up the career path as a result of experience, education and training, without necessarily leaving rural areas.

National Rural Health Commissioner report – June 2020

Recommendation 1: Once established, Service and Learning Consortia will improve recruitment and retention of allied health professionals by making rural and remote allied health practice and training more attractive and better supported.

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